An introduction to the principles of medical imaging by Chris Guy, Dominic Ffytche

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By Chris Guy, Dominic Ffytche

The advent of X-ray computed tomography (CT) 25 years in the past revolutionized scientific imaging; X-ray CT itself supplied the 1st transparent cross-sectional pictures of the human physique, with mammoth distinction among varieties of tender tissue. the long-lasting legacy of CT is, in spite of the fact that, the spur that it gave to the next creation of tomographic imaging options into diagnostic nuclear medication and the terribly fast improvement of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over this era.

This ebook is a non-mathematical creation to the rules underlying sleek clinical imaging, taking tomography as its valuable topic. the 1st 3 chapters disguise the final rules of tomography, a survey of the atomic and nuclear physics which underpins glossy imaging, and a evaluate of the foremost concerns considering radiation safeguard. the next chapters deal in flip with X-ray radiography, gamma imaging, MRI and ultrasound. The medical function of diagnostic imaging is illustrated within the ultimate bankruptcy by using fictional medical histories. 3 appendices supply a extra mathematical heritage to the tomographic approach, the rules of mathematical Fourier equipment, and the math of MRI.

This revised version comprises new introductory sections at the correct physics of molecules usually, and water, particularly. each bankruptcy now has a desk of key issues with cross-references to different sections. a number of figures have additionally been revised.

The ebook is meant to supply a large introductory history to tomographic imaging for 2 teams of readers: the physics or engineering undergraduate considering focusing on scientific physics, and the scientific scholar or clinician utilizing tomographic ideas in study and scientific perform.

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Example text

It is here that the overall form of the slice is represented in waves. Small K corresponds to long wavelengths, the smallest being the overall extent, L of the image. Waves further from K = 0 represent finer and finer details within the slice. If there were to be any roughly repeating pattern within the slice, for example like a chessboard, then the Fourier map would have little extra peaks at positions in K-space corresponding to the size of the pattern motif. Hokusai’s print certainly does not contain a chessboard but the K-space map does have bright spots well away from K = 0.

With small arrays it is clearly possible to solve the puzzle, using trial and error, beginning at the corners. For the large arrays, 256 × 256 or bigger, used in medical tomography the guessing could go on for a very long time before we get an answer. Fortunately there is a very simple procedure that will rapidly produce an approximate answer, and an exact method that uses the properties of Fourier transforms. 2, each of the numbers outside the box is the sum of box numbers, along a particular direction, through the array.

It is hoped that this chapter, taken in conjunction with the two appendices, will provide the reader with a basic understanding of much of the common jargon of tomographic methods and a single framework for understanding the details of the individual tomographic methods that we describe in later chapters. 1. The first step consists of carving the object into a set of parallel slices. In the second step, each two-dimensional (2D) slice is analysed in turn by acquiring a set of projections of that slice.

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