By Baruch Elimelech
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Extra info for A tonal grammar of Etsakọ
Umuga-tina. ’ b. M-óumuguu-tina. ’ (23) a. Busíyen-tina dúna. ’ b. M-abúsiyen-tina8 dúna. ’ 8 Garifuna words can be stressed on only the first or second syllable. When a consonant-initial word with second syllable stress is prefixed, stress must move one syllable to the left. garifuna negatives 21 (24) a. Gúndaa-tina. ’ b. M-agúndaa-tina. ’ (25) a. Dará n-umu-tu gáfu. ’ b. M-adáru n-umu-tu gáfu. , 1952a: 150) refers to this “adjectivalizing” prefix as “privative” mA-,9 and indeed, examples like (23)–(25) suggest that a prefix ma- is added to the basic verb stem.
Máma t-ubuídun iráhü! 34 It is not clear why má appears at the end rather than the beginning of these sentences. Such exclamations can be more complicated (sometimes with initial má and other variations in structure): 33 34 Most speakers describe these two exclamatory constructions as synonymous, but Ms. Guzman said that (89b). means you are talking to someone: “you need a partner in acknowledging the beauty of this child”. On the other hand, Mr. V. Lopez said that (89b). means “you’re saying it to yourself”.
2013). 1163/9789004257023_003 14 munro and gallagher Section A provides a morphosyntactic overview of the language, while the remaining sections of the paper deal with negatives. Section B describes standard verbal negation with the negative prefix m- and the negative verb stem, along with the negative hortative and various irregular and anomalous structures. Sections C and D describe the uses of the negative existential verb úwa and the nominal negative particle máma. Section E deals with a specialized type of negative question with the particle má, and section F with negative exclamations, which also use má and máma.