A grammar of contemporary Polish by Oscar E. Swan

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By subtracting ´ from piek´ and add the ending -esz to it: piek-esz Step 2. Replace k with its R2 counterpart cz: piecz-esz: pieczesz I LLUSTRATIONS OF SOUND-REPLACEMENT AND SPELLING RULES 41 iÊç id´ idziesz go-det. (1st conjugation) Step 1. sg. pres. by subtracting -´ from id´ and add the ending -esz to it: id-esz Step 2. Replace d with its R2 counterpart dê: idê-esz. Step 3. Spell dê as dzi before the vowel e: idzi-esz: idziesz. lubiç lubi´ lubisz like Step 1. Obtain the stem from the infinitive lubiç by subtracting -iç from it and by taking the resulting stem-consonant b′ back to its primary state b.

F EMININE-GENDER NOUN DECLENSION d. Both elements of a hyphentated female surname are succeptible to declination, as NV Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska, GDL PawlikowskiejJasnorzewskiej, AI Pawlikowskà-Jasnorzewskà; compare to NA D´bowska-Król, GDL D´bowskiej-Król, AI D´bowskà-Król. e. The suffixes -owa ‘wife of’ (with an adjectival declension) and -ówna ‘Miss, daughter of’ (nominal declension) are not much used today. When encountered, they have the status of a virtually independent last name; for example Nowakowa, Nowakówna: adjectival declension: Nowakowa Mrs.

Pl. N ostoja ostoje G ostoi ostoi D ostoi ostojom A ostoj´ ostoje I ostojà ostojami L ostoi ostojach V ostojo ostoje 51 52 3. F EMININE-GENDER NOUN DECLENSION kolacja supper (j-stem) Sg. Pl. N kolacja kolacje G kolacji kolacji* D kolacji kolacjom A kolacj´ kolacje I kolacjà kolacjami L kolacji kolacjach V kolacjo kolacje tragedia tragedy (j-spelled-i stem) Sg. Pl. N tragedia tragedie G tragedii tragedii D tragedii tragediom A tragedi´ tragedie I tragedià tragediami L tragedii tragediach V tragedio tragedie * In older orthography, kolacyj.

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